Boelen, P. A., Denderen, M. van, & Keijser, J. de (in press). Prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, anger, and revenge phenomena following homicidal loss: The role of negative cognitions and avoidance behaviors. Homicide Studies.
This study examined associations of symptoms of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anger, and revenge thoughts and feelings with different categories of negative cognitions and indices of anxious and depressive avoidance behaviors, among 331 homicidally bereaved individuals. Outcomes showed that symptom-levels of PGD and PTSD were higher among individuals who had more negative cognitions about the self, were more inclined to catastrophically misinterpret their grief-reactions, and tended to engage in depressive avoidance. Anger was strongly associated with negative cognitions about the self. Revenge thoughts and feelings were associated with pessimistic cognitions and anxious avoidance of loss-related stimuli.